Miniatures tend to need particular types of glue, each with their own properties that help to complement the style of miniature, the plastic it's made of, and the environmental conditions it will face. Here are some recommendations.
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Methyl Cellulose is a useful water-based glue for dollhouse wallpapers, paper miniatures, and books. It is recommended by professionals as it is "reversible" and mistakes can be easily remedied. It can be used on its own or mixed with PVA glue for more "slip" and longer drying time of the PVA. Unlike some craft paper glues, which are based on cornstarch, methyl cellulose is not attacked by pests. Learn how to use it and you'll be able to use it for paper projects, book repairs, even as a marbling size for paper or fabric.
02 of 08
PVA or Poly Vinyl Acetate Glues
PVA glues are the standby of many workbenches. Nontoxic and with low fumes, they clean up with water. There are several different formulations, and you can use them according to materials. You can use an acid-neutral glue. Some may occasionally use "tacky" glue formulations to hold materials on an upright surface or thick PVA glues that will hold metals or plastics against porous materials such as wood paper or leather.
Various Types of PVA Glue
03 of 08
Polyurethane glues like the popular Excel and Gorilla Glue form bonds that in some applications are stronger than PVA glues or Cyanoacrylate glues. These are highly water-resistant glues good for exterior applications and will bond wood as well as nonporous materials such as stone, ceramics, metals, and some plastics. Polyurethane glues foam and swell up as they cure.
These glues do not clean up with water, so have denatured alcohol handy to clean up your joints before the glue sets. Most solvents are inactive on polyurethane glue, so don't ever plan on removing them without sanding once they have bonded.
04 of 08
Cyanoacrylate glues, also known as crazy glues or super glues have some special uses for miniatures. They are fast-setting, but generally brittle glues, except for particular formulations. They can be used to help hold materials while other slower bonding glues set up, but are rarely advisable for use on their own with most miniatures. Be careful when using them to work only in well-ventilated areas and use eye protection. You can develop sensitivities to them. Gloves are also advisable.Continue to 5 of 8 below.
05 of 08
Epoxy Glues and Pastes
Two-part epoxy glues, putties, and pastes are useful for bonding metals and ceramics, although they can also be used with wood, glass, stone, and some plastics. Permanent when set, they are available in a range of thicknesses, partially determined by the gap size they are expected to fill. Epoxies have the advantage of being very stable when cured, as they are resistant to heat and chemicals. Most epoxies will deteriorate with exposure to UV light.
There is a wide range of slight differences between brands of epoxy glues, putties, and pastes, based on the type of resin and hardener (activator) used. The various types and brands differ mainly by cure time, color, the ability to withstand heat, flexibility when cured, and consistency. Choose a brand that will work for the widest number of applications you will need epoxy for. Most have a short shelf life after opening. Be sure to follow safety guidelines when using all forms of epoxy. Allergic reactions to the hardener can develop.
Kneadable epoxy putties are often used to repair large cracks or fill areas on models for repurposing a model. They are used by model horse enthusiasts to reshape horses and by gaming miniature enthusiasts as a modeling material for new sculpts. Retooling and sanding work differently on various brands, so experiment with a few if you intend to use them for sculpting or re-sculpting models and figures. Some thinner two-part epoxy pastes such as Apoxie Paste can be used for making casts in simple molds, as well as for bonding and filling larger cracks in broken ceramics and other materials. Specialist "Jewelry Putties" such as Enviro Tex Jewelry Clay, will accept colors and pigments to make unique shades. You can see this putty-colored and used to make miniature gnomes for outdoor gardens.
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Plastic Glues and Plastic Weld Glues
Several types of glue will work with plastic, but there are special plastic welding cements that dissolve the plastic to create a stronger bond. Plastic glues don't work with all plastics so you need to know what types of plastic you are trying to bond together and use the appropriate glue. If acetone (nail polish remover) causes the surface of a scrap of similar plastic to become tacky, you can usually use that plastic with plastic cement or a plastic weld.
07 of 08
Silicone caulk and glues are used by modelers for a range of very different purposes. They are often used to simulate flowing water in railroad terrains. Silicone is also used to hold vibrating motors in place in model airplanes and boats and is used to glue glass and metal to a range of other surfaces. One of the confusions with silicone is that very similar types are available for a range of "specialized" applications. If you need small amounts, try pet stores where it is sold to repair aquariums, or dive stores, where it is sold to seal masks. Scrapbook stores sell small tubes of clear silicone "glue" to hold beads, glass, and metal securely to metallic papers and cards. Automotive stores sell small tubes of gasket material, or window sealant, which are all the same basic silicone.
If you need to paint silicone for any reason, make sure you buy a "paintable" silicone to start with, usually found at a hardware store.
As many silicones give off acetic acid as they cure, try to use "oxime" cure silicones where you are working with materials that need to be acid-free.
Why You Should Use Acid-Free Materials
A special type of "moldable" silicone glue can be used to hold diverse materials together, as well as molded for simple flexible miniatures. Known as "Sugru" this form of silicon is a colored putty which can be blended to a range of different colors. A "do-it-yourself" form of this putty can be made from the instructions for "Oogoo" found on the Instructables website. This is made from silicone glue or caulk and cornstarch or talcum powder.
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Crystalline waxes and wax gels are sold under a variety of names for temporarily holding items to smooth surfaces. Sometimes called "museum wax," "tacky wax," or "quake wax," these are good for positioning miniatures as parts of models or scenes. Model horse artisans use them to hold bits on model horses, collectors use them to hold items on display shelves, and miniaturists of all types use them to fix items into the hands of figures.
These waxes are available in gel or wax formulations. The gels are usually clearer and are useful for adhering clear glass objects to clear shelving. They are of limited use in displays which will get hot enough to soften the wax.